?104 (Reb ?UbL/ng). These are relatively low, due to the small leaf size, but are representative for real leaves. The turbulence intensity (TIref ) at the inlet of the domain was taken as low (0.02 ), which is representative for lowturbulence wind tunnels. The specific dissipation rate [v, s21; required for the shear stress transport (SST) k-v turbulence 1 model, see below] was determined from v